This implementation problem is common in many fields. Studying the history of art, for example, does not teach you how to create great art: It just helps you appreciate why it’s great. Your studies may heighten your perception and stoke your enthusiasm to emulate the work of the masters, but you are still a long way from producing a great work. Similarly, the analysis of strategy allows you to appreciate why some strategies are innovative, but it doesn’t teach you how to create them. Those skills, like those of great artists, are synthetic, not analytical. They cannot be taught conceptually – they have to be learned through well-structured experience.