Chris Argyris

There are two dominant mindsets in the world of business or any kind of organization.

One is a productive mindset, and it says it’s a good idea to seek valid knowledge, it’s a good idea to craft your conversations so you make explicit what you are thinking and trying to examine. You craft them in such a way that you can test, as clearly as you can, the validity of your claims. Truth is a good idea.

Then there’s another mindset I call the defensive mindset. The idea is that even if you are seeking valid knowledge, you are seeking only that kind of valid knowledge that protects yourself or your organization or your department—it is defensive. From a defensive mindset point of view, truth is a good idea when it isn’t threatening or upsetting. If it is, massage it, spin it.

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